The English writing system is based not only on sound but also on meaning. Orthographic knowledge refers to the understanding of the English spelling system and its patterns, including grapheme positions and combinations in a word. Morphological knowledge refers to the understanding of how morphemes can be used to form words. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning within words, including prefixes, suffixes, and bases. All words are made up of one or more morphemes.
Students apply their consolidated phonological awareness and phonics knowledge, as well as their developing orthographic and morphological knowledge, to read and spell words in isolation and in various text contexts.
Reading and spelling CV, VC, and CVC words made of phonics patterns they have learned
Reading and spelling CVC, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC, and CVCe words made of phonics patterns they have learned
Consolidating phonics knowledge in word reading and spelling increasingly complex multisyllabic words, with developing automaticity
Applying word reading and spelling skills to complex multisyllabic words, with increasing automaticity
adjusting for close approximations when reading words such as by flexing vowel sounds, adjusting syllable stress and schwa (unstressed vowel sound), known as set for variability