Continuum Unpacked

Applying Phonics Knowledge in Reading and Spelling

Segmented Spelling

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Category: Word-Level Reading and Spelling

The English writing system is based not only on sound but also on meaning. Orthographic knowledge refers to the understanding of the English spelling system and its patterns, including grapheme positions and combinations in a word. Morphological knowledge refers to the understanding of how morphemes can be used to form words. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning within words, including prefixes, suffixes, and bases. All words are made up of one or more morphemes. 

Students apply their consolidated phonological awareness and phonics knowledge, as well as their developing orthographic and morphological knowledge, to read and spell words in isolation and in various text contexts.

Knowledge and Skills: Applying Phonics Knowledge in Reading and Spelling

Kindergarten/Grade 1

Reading and spelling CV, VC, and CVC words made of phonics patterns they have learned

Grade 1

Reading and spelling CVC, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC, and CVCe words made of phonics patterns they have learned

Grade 2

Consolidating phonics knowledge in word reading and spelling increasingly complex multisyllabic words, with developing automaticity

Grade 3

Applying word reading and spelling skills to complex multisyllabic words, with increasing automaticity

Grade 4

 

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Looks like

K/1

applying grapheme-phoneme correspondences (see B2.3) to word reading and spelling:

when spelling a word, identifying the phonemes they hear in the word and representing each phoneme with a grapheme

Grade 1

applying grapheme-phoneme correspondences (see B2.3) to word reading and spelling:

-when spelling a word, identifying the phonemes they hear in the word and representing each phoneme with a grapheme

Grade 2

applying phonics to read the individual syllables of multisyllabic words

-adjusting for close approximations when reading words, such as by flexing vowel sounds, adjusting syllable stress and schwa (unstressed vowel sound), known as set for variability

Grade 3

adjusting for close approximations when reading words such as by flexing vowel sounds, adjusting syllable stress and schwa (unstressed vowel sound), known as set for variability

Why is this important?

Phonics lays the foundation for reading comprehension. By learning phonics, students acquire the ability to decode words. Decoding allows students to read words, sentences, and eventually, texts accurately.
 
To decode, students must understand the relationship between sounds and print, or grapheme-phoneme correspondence. To support automatic, effortless word reading, it is crucial that students can accurately and automatically associate graphemes with phonemes.

Instruction

This grapheme-phoneme correspondence should be systematically and explicitly taught, within a scope and sequence that builds from more simple to more complex concepts. Explicit instruction is characterized by direct modelling, guided practice, and purposeful individual practice. Grapheme-phoneme correspondences should not be taught in isolation, but should instead be closely linked to other activities in the literacy block. Students should practice both reading and writing words containing sound-spelling links they have learned, and texts should offer students opportunities to decode words with this pattern. This careful integration encourages students to apply developing knowledge and skill to other reading and writing tasks.
 
Students need to be taught that…

Resources